“Polynesians are all Samoans” says captain of voyaging canoe Hokule’a

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72 Responses

  1. The Pacific Ocean is my home.Kio.com says:
    If you look at the pacific ocean as 1 big country (not as an ocean) then its fuckn simple people.your from the pacific just born in samoa,or tonga or aotearoa etc etc.all the same people just from different areas and some areas were found first.so stop getting all serious and shit or ill get michael jay fox and build a time machine and well go back and see what really happened on that cold night in january between our ancestors to make us all.lmao.😂😂
    Im guessing it was an african and an asian.and a little green man with googly eyes.
    Fa soifua.#samoamosamoa
  2. Ioane Lutali says:
    I think that you people need to understand that Queen Salote authored a book that should all of your doubts regarding the origin of Polynesia. She contended that the Samoans and Tongans are one. Yes, indeed, the first Tui Toga was a direct decendent of Tui Manu’a. In Toga today exists a sacred Malae of or Marae of Tui Manu’a, where royal tradional festivities only takes place. She also wrote about Samoans being the master boat builders of ancient Polynesia – that the builder masters were of the island of Manono, Samoa, and that the kings of Toga and Fiji sent their warriors, diplomaticly speaking, to Manono to have their voyaging canoes built. She also proudly wrote about her royal ancestors, the Malietoa Royal Fmily.
  3. TaHētiriNuiʻAhuManu says:
    OMG this is stupid! All of Polynesia was settled at the same time, Marquesan artifacts found on the big island of Hawaii date back to 300AD who’s to say that they won’t find an even older artifact in the future. A man made wall found in a forest in Aotearoa is beloved to be over 2,000 years old by archeologists. To say that a race of people who are known to be great seafarers and way finders would discover islands hundreds of years apart is the most idiotic thing I’ve ever heard. Why & how would/could people of great voyaging capabilities just settle in one island group & wait until they got over populated or exiled until they went on to discover the next island group? How would they still remember the art of way finding if they weren’t finding their way around for multiple generations!? The closest Polynesian island group to Hawai’i is Tahiti which is over 2,000 miles away. No two Polynesian island groups are farther away from each other than Hawai’i and Tahiti, so how would/could a people who’ve settled down in Tahiti & haven’t gone on a deep sea voyage for over a hundred years just end up jumping into their canoes and end up successfully navigating their way straight to Hawai’i? If the Polynesians settled Samoa then after a period of time settled Tonga then after a period of time settled Niue then after a period of time settled Tokelau then after a period of time settled Rarotonga then after a period of time settled Tahiti, which would now have been many many generations since the first Polynesians left SE Asia to settle Samoa, then how in the world would the Polynesians who settled Hawai’i remember the exact names of the SE Asian areas they initially came from? Especially when most of those place names aren’t even found in Samoa, Tonga, Niue, Tokelau, Rarotonga or Tahiti? Like the island of Molokai which is named after the island of Morotai in the Malukus? or the island of Oahu which is named after the island of Oiadju in Sulawesi? or the island of Kauai which is named after the province Kawai in Timor? Or the island of Hawai’i which is named after Sawaii in Halmahera? I believe the oral history of my people that say we sailed many many canoes straight from Ka Aina Kai Melemele a Kane & discovered other islands along the way & mapping each island using the constellations above to pin point them. Some canoes stopped at an island others continued on to discover until every Polynesian island group was found and settled. As my Kupuna says after we each settled our own lands we would then visit each other, our family members in the distance ocean. Remembering which constellations hovering over their homes to show us the way, but after a period of time and many generations later our own families grew within our own islands and the younger generations didn’t have the same relationship with their distant cousins like their grandparents & great grandparents of the past. We began to build our own societies & get caught up within our own internal affairs and the islands across the sea became a distant memory and sailing or visiting one another became a choice of drastic need rather than a friendly visit. Scientist don’t know shit! Historians & scholars don’t even take oral history into consideration most of the time. Not too long ago scientists, archeologists, anthropologists, historians, scholars ect. ect. were all in agreement that the islands of Polynesia were all discovered by accident. Either by fishermen being swept out at sea by strong storms or getting caught in ocean currents. Samoa is NOT AT ALL the cradle of Polynesia!
  4. Ofa says:
    I haven’t been able to read all the comments just skimmed a few. Saying all polynesians come from Samoa is not accurate. Tongans came from Fiji. Tonga is not a direction, it is a wind which blows southeast from Fiji. Sure there were families (we still use Ha’a) as in Ha’a Moa (Samoa) who had power over other families, islands at various times. The hero Maui is a strong figure in Tongan mythology, some say he came from Tonga, he is absent or very minor in Samoan mythology but is known all over the rest of Polynesia. Samoan culture shows a strong Micronesian influence, Tonga a strong Melanesian influence. The combination over many centuries birthed Polynesians.
    • TANGAROA&MAUI says:
      Micronesian influence in Samoa? How? The Micronesian invasion of Polynesia came to a hault in Kiribati and Tuvalu after Red hair Samoan warriors invaded Kiribati and supposedly massacred them as said in Kiribati legends.

      Maui is known throughout Samoan mythology to an extent like every other Polynesian island in the pacific. Samoans tend to revere TAGALOA(TAGALOALAGI) more as he he is the creator in
      Samoan myth. Besides Tongas creation myth explains how MAUI went to MANUKA(MANUA SAMOA) to get a hook from TUI MANUKA(TUI MANUA) to fish up island of Tonga. So how can he be from Tonga? I know it’s a myth and not solid evidence to show Samoa is Older, but it’s told in Tongan mythology for a reason. I agree with one thing you said, the first element in Tonga were Fijians. This was the time of the Tui Pulotu empire(Empire of Melanesia) that soon came to an end when Polynesians arrived into scene from Asia or America?(I DONT CARE) thus establishing the first Polynesian Empire(TUI MANUA EMPIRE OF HAAMOA) that overcame TUI PULOTU EMPIRE(Melanesian). Samoa or would you rather say, ” The Ancestors” Waged war on Fijians and pushed them out of Tonga. Centuries of Intetmarriages created “Tongans” the halfbreed of Samoa and Fijian blood. But as you can see today, Tonga is predominately Polynesian in culture, custom, and language indicating strong Polynesian presence & influence.

      • Te'e bee row says:
        Lol you’ve implied that how could Samoan come from Micronesia if Samoans stopped Micronesian invasion in other islands. Yet you claim Tongans come from Fiji and Samoa. Silly rabbit.

        That means I can claim Tongans don’t come from Fiji and Samoa bc we invaded both islands. Stupid rabbit.

        Go home, re-evaluate your stance and come back and say hi nicely.. Hahahahaha smh

        • Ioane Lutali says:
          Ignorance is dangerous. You doubters of Samoa being the cradle of Polynesia must educate yourselves. This is the age of technology where information can be retrieved in an instance. Stop the unnecesary jealousy and do some serious research about your history.
    • Ofa a2 says:
      Idk about coming from Fiji. Eastern Polynesia and Melanesia traveled against the current, so that if they got lost they knew the current would take them back..
  5. Maori says:
    I have really enjoyed reading all of these comments, although some people have said things that are hurtful to others but many of them speak from personal experiences not a whole society position. I don’t pretend to know exactly where we as Polynesians originate I can agree with another NZ Māori who’s posted on here that our Māori people say we came from Hawaiki Pamamao or Tawhiti-nui both names can be traced to Samoa and Tahiti (Tawhiti/Fiji). The northern part of Aotearoa has several names but one is called Tai-tokerau or sea of Tokelau. Language tells us we were once all the same people. Recently DNA has shown us that we are not only of South East Asian stock but also Central & possibly South American Indian. Our traditional crops were of Asian & American origin. I see a Samoan child and I see my people, I see a Tongan child and I see my people and I have been told that if I saw a Central or South American Indian child I will probably say the same thing. We are a special breed of people that is made up of many of the people who surround the greatest Ocean in the world. As we now are discovering where our Polynesian culture roots come from, lets acknowledge and celebrate each other because I’m proud to belong to and come from a beautiful dark skin, big lips, solid looking (muscular), flat-footed and nose, wavy black to bleached blond/red haired race, who know how to love simple life and laugh with no reservations at ourselves as well as with other people! We respect our ancestors no matter where they came from, good or bad, rich or poor, monarchy or slave – this is who we all are.
    • Tz says:
      That’s 100. Really it shouldn’t matter who were the first Polynesians. If Samoa was the first Polynesians than it means they probably came from Melanesia. Same thing if Tonga was the first. If Tahiti was the first most likely they came from America. Whose to say we aren’t a mix of AMERICAN, ASIAN, and AFRICAN? We can trace our ancestry back to all 3.

      Let’s not make it about pride, bc we all came from somewhere. But if you wanna talk about pride, we can go there.

  6. TANGAROA&MAUI says:
    The first Polynesian empire to be established was the Samoan Tui Manua Empire. This empire’s influence was so strong, it reached parts of Micronesia and Melanesia.

    True to an extent, but Tonga was not the so called first Polynesian Empire. The first Polynesian empire was The TUI MANUA Empire(Samoan) which conquered all surrounding Polynesiam Islands that consisted of Tonga, Niue, Parts of Fiji, Wallis & Futuna, Cook Islands, Tahiti etc..etc..

    “* Over time and space, Tongan society became more settled, shaped strictly by both internal pressure and external influences. The external influences came in the form of imperial activities beginning with the Tu’i Pulotu empire in Fiji and followed by the Tu’i Manu’a empire in Samoa. In other words, Tonga was under considerable influence from the imperialism of both Fiji and Samoa. However, Tonga was able to free herself through bitter and bloody wars from the imperial domination of the Tu’i Manu’a — which eventually led to the formation of the Tu’i Tonga empire around AD 950 in the person of ‘Aho’eitu, the first Tu’i Tonga — whose father was a deified Samoan high chief, Tangaloa ‘Eitumâtupu’a, and mother a Tongan woman, Va’epopua, of great noble birth. This double origin, entitled the Tu’i Tonga to hold both divine and secular offices. In principle, the close cultural and historical interlinkages between Fiji, Samoa and Tonga were essentially elitist, involving the intermarriage between regional aristocratic families.

    The Tui Manu’a Kings extended Samoan influence and rule over various island groups including Tonga and parts of Fiji in which all of these islands payed tribute to Tui Manu’a Kings called Umiti.

    Oral traditions coupled with cultural, linguistic, and archaeological evidences suggest that Samoan influence and rule was at one time or another felt throughout all of Tonga, the Niuas/Niue, the Marquesas, parts of Fiji, Rotuma, the Cook Islands, Uvea, Futuna, Tokelau, and Rurutu. Polynesian outlier groups located outside of the Polynesian triangle are also linked to ancient Samoan voyaging and cultural diffusion. The Tui Manu’a Empire was referred to in Samoan lore as the Manuatele (Great Manua) and the Faleselau (House of Hundreds). The latter title referred to the hundreds of islands within the Tui Manua’s sphere of influence and rule. The Great Manu’a is mentioned as Manuatere in Eastern Polynesia and as Manuka in Tongan and Cook Islands.

  7. fame says:
    I thought polynesian people originated from Savai’i, had a disagreement and then dispersed themselves all among other small islands, settled and created their own languages.
  8. Sonia says:
    This article is wrong.
  9. Sonia says:
    What a load of rubbish.
  10. Otgonbayar says:
    What about indigenous Formosans? Didn’t Polynesian come from Taiwan?
    • CUCAMONGA TONGANz says:
      Polynesian didn’t just come from one place..it’s dumb to say Polynesians all came from Taiwan..the first Polynesians weren’t the first to settle all Polynesian islands
  11. TONGA is SOUTH in sAmoan says:
    I think the article is dumb. I mean someone can easily write another blog on how Melanesians settled all of Polynesia, or even how Micronesians settled all of Polynesia. What makes us different from Micronesia and Melanesia is a line on a map and a slight difference in DNA. Before any blood samples were taken for DNA, all the white man had were colored ppl on islands, some looked blacc some looked asian some looked blacc and asian some looked native american, they all speak somewhat the same. Culture divided us into what Ethnic Studies majors call a “BOX”. Polynesian box, Micronesian box and Melanesian box.

    This article is for the Poly box, they came from sAmoa, when in my opinion, sAmoan settled TONGA, and thats where this new beginning starts. Tonga runs the Polynesian Empire like a country. Conquering islands, even sAmoa itself, parts of Fiji, Raro Tonga, influenced Rapa Nui, Wallis and Fatuna. okay maybe im just going off of cultural influence and language, but the sAmoa and Fiji ones are true.

    • TANGAROA&MAUI says:
      True to an extent, but Tonga was not the so called first Polynesian Empire. The first Polynesian empire was The TUI MANUA Empire(Samoan) which conquered all surrounding Polynesiam Islands that consisted of Tonga, Niue, Parts of Fiji, Wallis & Futuna, Cook Islands, Tahiti etc..etc..

      “* Over time and space, Tongan society became more settled, shaped strictly by both internal pressure and external influences. The external influences came in the form of imperial activities beginning with the Tu’i Pulotu empire in Fiji and followed by the Tu’i Manu’a empire in Samoa. In other words, Tonga was under considerable influence from the imperialism of both Fiji and Samoa. However, Tonga was able to free herself through bitter and bloody wars from the imperial domination of the Tu’i Manu’a — which eventually led to the formation of the Tu’i Tonga empire around AD 950 in the person of ‘Aho’eitu, the first Tu’i Tonga — whose father was a deified Samoan high chief, Tangaloa ‘Eitumâtupu’a, and mother a Tongan woman, Va’epopua, of great noble birth. This double origin, entitled the Tu’i Tonga to hold both divine and secular offices. In principle, the close cultural and historical interlinkages between Fiji, Samoa and Tonga were essentially elitist, involving the intermarriage between regional aristocratic families.

      • Me again says:
        Ok, once Tonga became independent they were able to tell history as fact..when Samoans won their independence from Tonga, they too now can tell history from their belief as “factual”

        Everyone can believe whatever they want..archeologist and linguist both say Tonga is the birth place of Polynesia..but like I said, each island can make up its own history..

        • TANGAROA&MAUI ONCE AGAIN says:
          This information was compiled together by Samoan and Tongan Scholars. Besides, your King George Tupou the 1st upon visiting Samoa back in 1800 claimed TUI TONGA and TUI KANAKUPOLU SPRUNG UP OUT OF SAMOA. You going to deny your own kings words?

          So whos island is making up history?

          • Only He knows says:
            Im not denying anything of what Tui Tonga, Tongan and Samoan scholars are saying. I’m saying it’s possible for there to be a mix up of where Polynesia actually started. Today to be a scholar you would study books written 200-300 years ago by white mean trying to enterpret a people they can’t even fully understand. And the Tui Tupou I is the 16th or 17th Tui Tonga. With no written history before him everything is by word.

            I also don’t doubt Samoans came to Tonga. When they did Tongans were already settled. We didn’t come from Samoa. Samoa put in a governing system and that’s probably how our first Kings were most likely Samoan. But they weren’t sent from Tui Manuka. Some say they were cast out from Tui Manuka. The claim that Tongans were ever under Samoan rule or even under Fiji I personally have never heard. It’s not in our history that I kno of. We were however the less civilized at the time of the 3 islands.

            What I’m trying to say about language is that Tonga, claimed by luinguists, people that study language and origin of, claim the Tongan language to be most original of all Polynesian languages. One said of the closest is Samoa, and Samoan language could also be seen as a deep accent changing over time. In many Latin American countries they don’t pronounce the letter “D” when they talk or even “S” when it’s at the end. Because of written language the correct form is still preserved. You wouldn’t get FAKA from FA’A. But like Spanish, over time you can lose the “K” just by speaking fast. Hawaiian is a good example of more of the Tongan language losing more of its origin. Hawaiian language is like changing from Samoan. More examples but been a minute since I read it. Look it up.

            Archeologist just made there claim “fact” when they found the oldest artifact in Tonga. I know that can be changed as soon as they find something deeper in Samoa. So not really a hard fact. But for now that’s the claim.

  12. jerry says:
    Hahaha..great read very interesting perspective. and all the comments have been very entertaining to say the least.
    I’m Samoan and proud to be, I’m also glad that we’re all different and not all Samoan that would be unbearable! LOL
  13. SamoanNomad says:
    It’s nice to know that Samoans birthed all of Polynesia, but then where did Samoans come from? Some say Africa, some say Asia. This argument turns into an infinite regress because you can always go further back into time to the first man and woman (Adam and Eve) or even before that, the primordial soup. Whatever suits your convictions. Similarly, this argument is like the one with indigenous peoples arguing over stolen possessions by the colonizers. For instance, if a native from America claims there land was stolen from them, did they not also acquire it by conquest/theft from some other tribe before it, and that tribe before it in the same way? You could go all the way back in time, but how would you know exactly how much reparations should be paid to that person who is claiming theft, if at all? Who is the guilty party or are they all guilty? Well that’s another topic but it sounds like the one above, which we are trying to figure out who deserves the credit. As for the captain of Hokule’a saying “We are all Samoan,” It has a nice ring to it, I’ll admit. If you deduce that the first navigator was a Samoan, then it follows that all of Polynesia must have started from there. But then who was the navigator that made it from Africa/Asia to Samoa before the so called first navigator? The argument never ends (sigh). I’m still laughing at the comment above about the aliens. I just simply appreciate the human ingenuity to navigate with no modern instruments. Simply using the God given faculties of the senses and keen observation of mother nature. it really is a lost art since we are so dependent and spoiled by technology. The Survivor reality TV shows are laughable when I think about it. Thanks for the article. It made me appreciate all that is Polynesia.
  14. jay pointon of wangaz says:
    heres a white-man term see if islanders can understand this its not hard it might be like getting a P.H.D for sum. Samoan is polynesian but polynesian is not samoan. It makes me laugh to think of a samoan advance scientist that got infomation far grater than the rest of the worlds scientist who was more intrested with the maori people who are by far the most popular race and unique than all other islander it sound like to me samoan dont want to be knowin as the land of the Faa Faa Feni(Poo Poo Pusher)any more,thats why they run around with a high pitch scream that still scares nobody thats why nobody take them serious now look put sumthing like this blog up while every 1in the world laugh at them there that dumb there probaly laugh with us laughing at them there so behind in the world they had to move to a country were they hated the maori because they still remeber the encounter that they had with only three maori warship who killed the remaning easter islanders on there way back to n.z seen samoa even though they just finished fighting all islander on there way back they couldnt resist fighting the last island race before hitting home even though samoan people may hide that infomation because the maori won it happend thats why the hatered is there thats why wen samoan refugeed over to new zealand the mothers and fathers brain wash there kids to only stay away from 1 race and that was the maori only the true samoan will admit that maori were far more advanced like richard said theres no way in hell samoan would ever be in new zealand if it wasnt for my kind another fellow brit whos moved to new zealand its funny because wen you see wanted person on t.v it says looking for apacific islander or maori, nz govt them self thinks of maori as diffrent race to polynesian maybe because there the fathers of polynesian,but yet nz govt have turn down scientist from around the world that want to investigate underground to see if maori bones are older than what has been said in previous years all because my kind does not want maori to be natives of this land then that would mean the treaty is void and maori could claim that the treaty was only intended as a pardon for that time period under the queen which she has lost power since that time.sorry all polynesian race but maori in my and most brits i no who study maori culture because every 1 behind shut doors of most english whisperd about how one tiny tiny race known as the maori stood up and fought against men with advanced weaponary even though through history england is well known for battle,wars,most of all winning a fight we went into no matter the odds we won the maoris were just somthing diffrent like this the first time drench warfare was used to fight my ancestors by the maori they change even the white man warfare through ww1, ww2 were using the same system that the maori showed us how to do hitler him self stated in his dairy if he had the maoris he would have won the war but it proves that since maori were found the rest of the world have been fasinated of this race who in ways have change history for all who lives in nz. sorry samoa nobody really knows how long maori have been on new zealand since nz govt declined world leading scientist in helping investigate the bones that are still under ground and the one that new zealand claim that the oldest bones go back 960a.d then why not let other scientist in to do an investigate like as if we can trust nz govt with information like claiming the celtic were here before maori lol the funnyist thing i ever heard and if you have been to celtic ruins you no that if a celtic was here in nz youll seen ruins and alot of stone statues even a site for a big viking boat ,kutlery,pottery,arrow tips,metal for refine blade,black smith gear,alot of things that should intanly stick out from normal celtic living site which usally indicate celtics were here and yet nothing from celtic was actually found with maori or settler that mined under ground they only found a few carving that were on rock so to make the treaty sound strong if we were to say white was first in new zealand lol wat a joke samoa u have no written wrighting at all or even old songs that sing about that statement lay off the karva and mens asshole fumes and wake up all islander need help you cum to aotearoa faggots cant stand on your own two feet call your self samoan and yet half if not all havnt even been to your own island wat a joke and i dont care cause all samoans do is blind side,and gang bash because you never had balls to start with thats why samoan didnt come to nz untill white man settled the maori down and had protection so you faa faa wouldnt get eaten from the savages of the pasific and polynesian was a name givin from white man not a samoan.somoan lol looking for a hand out from nz govt and the maori party to pay the local ghost talker lol to see the big calve fat and your leg fat stop swallowing your dick cause every 1 knows samoan hav little dicks and thats why samoan fuck faa faa now stop trying to recieve more money its an island not a country so act like it trying to be white poly’s maybe if you all chip in youll get sum where just like now trying to be father of polynesian lol youve accepted faa faa for hundreds and hundreds but yet no other island race did and if you were the first poly race all other islander would have would have thought that to be normal but no island race had showed sigh of gay faa faa stuff wen cook went around to all island and that he stated in samoa the girls look like men and the men looked like girls so make sure the world dont see how really dumb samoans think soon youll tell us samoan are eve and the brits is adam,try and think before speaking thats if you can even think looks to me that out of all island race maori won the fight for new zealand samoan lost and got stuck on an island that should be new samoa cause if thats the original island there should be bones streching nearly 2or5 thousand years old reaveling the true identy of samoa but there is just notthing you can base to solid facts now wake never mind what you people may or may not have done try thinking what u can do with the race you have now you will never no the answer to unless merman can help, stop trying to keep up with maori kill streak there an older race than samoa thats why they were so advanced from weapontry,waka,there colthes,there hunting they were even hauling in wales from there waka the list goes on they even had an ancient indian bell that was used to cook food for a tribe for hundred of years before white man came think you samoan are old race but show no sign of ever advanceing to a greater level but samoan only ever had basic living item ancient fiji were more advanced so dont tell me shit
    • Teine Samoa says:
      Say what you want LMAO! Don’t be MAD SOLE!! We still own and run our Island!! Best players on your Rugby team are Samoans, even in your entertainment industry Samoans Rule!! No one knows about that JUNK in your comment, is because it AIN’T TRUE!!
  15. richard the great says:
    Just note that when we deal with history, without written evidence its all based on theory.In my view aboriginal culture who’s bloodline is nearly 70 thousand years old.were dancing around a fire in the desert of australia, sum 40 thousand years ago bearing in mind my race the lengendry british(european) who went around the world pathing a better life for all has not even been thought of.(i bet samoan people wern’t around let alone polynesian race no pun intended)My theory is the birth of all polynesian came from the aboriginal people who keep traveling east until they were forced to driff from island to island untill a islander was born. many features of islanders can be seen in the mother of polynesian, aboriginal.but wen we were younger us brits never knew of maori as polynesian in a sense that maori were more advance in knowledge and warfare than all other polynesian all island race would not be able to deffend there island and still be living today, even if we gave them muskets.samoan didnt even try to fight my ancestors they didnt have the brain or balls. you know what not only did maori have both balls and brain but they also fought with sticks and stone against a military trained army who had battled against all culture on earth,but never fought somthing like the savages of the pacific the MAORI,they killed more whites and brown people than every other island race put together and ate them.we could not defeat them my ancestor were stress that the maori woudnt bow down or die to her queen like all other island(polynesian) race did so the treaty was born at school were taught thats how you defeat sumthing that cant be killed was to use the power of the paper and ink.still today maori have never been defeated they were colonised and is the fastest race to go from stick and stone to space age if you ask me they were the father of samoa and many others.maori were even thought to be aryan because they way they were and thought and last knowin warrior spirit that never resided in a samon blood ever i sure samoa made up the king hit aka hit some while they not looking.
    • TONGA is SOUTH in sAmoan says:
      If your so strong on ur opinion about maoris and how they fought off the britts, what is to say about a much smaller island with not nearly as many warriors as Aotearoa. Tonga much more smaller and still till this day has never been taken by a foreign power. and if your dont know about Tonga, its the only island that conquered other islands such as Fiji, Samoa, Wallis and Fatuna, and these arent theories like the one of this blog.
      I dont know our encounters with NZ but i do know we were never colonized.
      • Tony Ituau says:
        Nobody wants to colonize your flat boring islands bra, plus it’s small as hell with fat people all over it. Tongo islands have no resource, have nothing of value to it, it’s just flat and small and boring bra
  16. ShyBoto says:
    These are sme of the funniest comments I have dver read. Especially the ones about Samoans actually beig from out of space and the one that supported that and said that they mated with mermaids Lol.
  17. sawaiian says:
    We all came from Africa!
  18. Historia says:
    Interesting article but it seems flawed in my view and doesn’t take into account the scientific study and views of the eastern Polynesians who’s legends may tell otherwise. Eastern Polynesian cultures typically call themselves ‘Maori’ e.g Aotearoa = Maori, Cook Island = Maori, Rapa Nui = Maori, Tahiti = Maohi, Marquesas = Maohi, and Hawaii = Maoli. This ‘Maori’ culture is distinct and somewhat different than the Melanesian, Western Polynesian cultures of Samoa, Tonga and Fiji and linguist and scientific studies will support this. It is also worth noting that the settlement of Eastern Polynesia happened a thousand or so years after Samoa etc. Most eastern Polynesians trace their beginnings to the Marquesas islands according to local legend and narrative. However it is possible and likely the people who settled the Marquesas came through/from Samoa but then you have to ask where did Samoans come from? then where did those people come from…… and if we go all the way back, we’ll find Polynesians came from Asia. This guy just sounds like a Samoan imperialist.
    • Hollow-Earth says:
      No hes just stating something he believes in , probably through more in-depth research then what he can find on Wikipedia and Google. Yes we come from Lapita. probably many more migrations from the east at different times. There are words in the Samoan language that relate to Japan, South east Asia. India. Middle east. North Africa.
      Let me ask you something, How do you Count in Eastern Polynesian? 1,2,3?

      the word ma-Mao in Samoan means Far away..

      Dont forget. Most of you who are Polynesian. are speaking a Language which has been destroyed and rebuilt by the white-man. who saw you all as primitive life forms.and with the power of “GOD”. your language and its definitions are what he says it is. so don’t be so quick to Stand by your language as if its the same language your ancestors spoke,
      Eastern Polynesia was translated by the french. Hawaii translated by America. Aotearoa, cook island and Tonga translated by the English. Samoa translated by the German.,This altered our Philosophy and languages … We all spoke one language once. , the word Moa really means Bird. the word Sa means forbidden,,

      • Alkatraz says:
        The word Moa doesn’t “really” mean bird. It has dual meaning and is dependent on the context in which the word is used. For example the word “aso” means “day” however when referring to the Samoan pe’a the word “aso” means “line”. Moa means center as well as bird.

        What was your purpose in mentioning the word mamao?

        Also the only language I know that has been destroyed and rebuilt as you say is the Tongan language. They have words that are more English than Tongan such as “famili” which obviously means “family” but Polynesians have their own word for “family” like “aiga” or “ohana”…The only English adopted words that are in most Polynesian languages are words that describe things that aren’t native to Polynesians way of life such as “car” which most Polynesian language call “ka” or “radio” which the Samoans call “lekio”…other than this, no Polynesian language have been destroyed just nearly extinct. Don’t know where you got your info from.

        You are sort of right though, in Polynesia there was only one language and that language was Samoan. Also the island nations weren’t individual, it was all considered one country and it’s center was Samoa.

        Why people have a hard time swallowing this is beyond me. Their ego or pride or possibly even their dislike of a few Samoans shouldn’t stop them from accepting a truth.

        But then they say, “well, where did the Samoans come from?”…lol…it’s people aren’t satisfied. You can say Africa but then where did they come from before that? And before that and before that? You see how foolish that sounds.

        All Polynesians can trace their roots back to Samoa everything after that is speculation.

        • Hollow Earth. says:
          I have a PHD and Masters in Anthropology Specializing in Ancient Polynesian history, Languages and Migration. I’ve been in the field for over 40 years. I can Speak Tongan, Samoan, Rarotongan,Tahitian, Maori, Nuian and Hawaiian Fluently. and i have visited all islands many many times. Lived in Samoa for 10 years. tonga for 2, raro for 1, Hawaii 9. and am Currently living in Marquesas,
          and yes like many words in the Samoan language It has dual meaning and is dependent on the context.
          you trace the word moa all the way back to Ancient East Asia it does mean Bird.
          the Maori called the Giant bird Moa, in Samoa you call the Chicken Moa, There are other birds in Samoa with Moa in the name, like the Moa-moa. this can be traced all around the pacific.

          Iv found that the Word Maoli? stems from the original language , the word Mao-Li’i, which means Far away place.
          Mamao was a hint, if you didn’t get it.

          This is Language your Parents and Grandparents don’t even speak.
          As in Samoa, the Germans changed the meanings of many words.
          Have you noticed that the Samoan word for Earth is lalolagi? one meaning is Beneath the Sky. the other is Lower World.

          And the Maori language was almost Extinct untill the 70s, when the Pakeha decided to rebuild it. which is why alot of it is pronounced differently today. They are not speaking the Original Language. other Pacific languages are the same.
          they have been re-translated.and redefined to suit the west. you can disagree, but spend your life researching it and you will come to the same conclusion.

          • Tauira says:
            It is good to know that someone has spent many years resurching this subject but there will never by one correct answer, I for one will never settle on one answer…
            But I have heard things along the lines of, the people off Polynesia we’re actually settled from Aotearoa where the biggest conoes could be built due to the size of the tree’s… even if there are a million disbelievers, It has a very simple logical… And that’s just to start off….
            I have also heard of a giant Moa being taken by Conoes to Samoa as evidence of a great land to the south.
            Again I have heard of ancestors traveling to old ancestral lands to the north west to bring back wood carving designs from Vanuatu pronounced ‘Whenua Tu’ in Maori…
            That the taro has been in New Zealand for over 2 thousand years…
            I could go on and on but it would never change the fact the neither any of you or myself will ever know the exact truth that only God knows for sure.
            Samoa may have initially been settled by the so called Lapita pottery people of (Malenesia) or Micronesia and later the true Polynesian from the great Southern land Aotearoa…
            But as always with man kind, pride and ignorance will not allow such facts.
            Aotearoa has many secrets to tell that the government does not want revealed and is happy with the propaganda that is being put into the education system to Blind people of any other facts.
        • aaron says:
          I don’t think people dispute that the Polynesian people originated from Samoa, but with that said we also have to take into consideration cultural, and linguistic metamorphosis. like in many cultures around the world people retain similar cultural and linguistic characteristics from of there origin but we don’t consider them the same. just as we don’t regard a an Indonesian person as Filipino in that same regards. They are South East Asian.

          So as the first Polynesian left Samoa to colonies other pacific islands such as the Marquesas Island they had then become there own people and those who left that island were no longer Samoan but Marquesan, and so on and so on.

          • Gig says:
            Good point. Do you know if Marquesans still speak marquesan? Or do they just speak French? Does that make them French now?
        • TONGA is SOUTH in sAmoan says:
          Alkatraz, good read. Not that u wanted to know but if u did, in TONGAN family would be Talatalaifale, which means, everything you learn in ur home and everyone in your home. Weird but we didnt have a name for family, so we took the Tongan/English form lol.

          but here another fact in history that some cant seem to accept, but Tonga played a big part in spreading sAmoas blood throughout Polynesia. Tongans came from sAmoa, settled, just like sAmoans settle after coming from lapita (which i dont believe), or micronesia. After forming their own ethnicity, went back to sAmoa and took over. Not only sAmoa but many other islands.

          Im TONGAN i know we came from sAmoa, but im proud to say that till this day we still own our island to ourselves.

          • I Am says:
            Tonga is South – actually I did want to know what the true Tongan word for “family” was. The word I’m familiar with is “kainga”, which is common or maybe even typical of Tongan words to Samoan words where the “K” is always in front of the “A” when the “A” is the first letter in the Samoan word, such as “kai” and “ai” which we all know as “eat”.

            I don’t doubt that Tonga went on their voyages across the Pacific conquering other island nations. I was told by an older Samoan man that the first Tuitonga (if I’m not mistaken) had a naval fleet that was rivaled only by Tuimanu’a. Tuimanu’a was smart enough to make an alliance down south.

            Tonga keeping their monarchy and ownership of their land since the beginning of time for them, is nothing short of what they do. Their independence doesn’t surprise me one bit. However, if you judge the crown and ownership of the land as points to their greatness, outside of their monarchy and their land ownership, i will say that the crown has failed somewhere along the line culturally and linguistically.

            As we’ve noted, in the Tongan language, many words were lost just as many forms of art were lost to them, such as the tattoo. Now a tattooist is hardly a person of leadership but they do play an important role in keeping historical information about the culture.

            I don’t deny Tonga went to Samoa and ruled but I don’t agree with Tonga ruling the whole of Samoa nor do I believe the Tongan occupation of Samoa was more than a generation (30-50 years). Let me explain my life…lol…

            The islands of Manu’a were never touched by Tonga. You as well as many other Tongans believe that the Tongan rule of Samoa lasted for a couple hundred years. I find this hard to believe because in an occupation or rule of a few centuries, many customs, language and traditions would be assimilated into the country and people that are being occupied. Britain is a good example; they’ve conquered many countries, assimilated and left a lot of their “culture” behind. Sports games like rugby and cricket lasted through the ages in India and Africa. Unlike the northern islands of Fiji which Tonga conquered, Samoa doesn’t have anything Tongan. The language is still the same, the culture is still the same, the traditions are the same heck even the food is the same.

            Now personally, I’m not a fan of Malietoa’s story of “saving” Samoa. They’re part of the reason that whole notion went out about the entire Samoa being occupied by Tongan rule. I mean it benefits them to look like the savior of the entire country. It makes their claim to the Tafaifa strong but as I’ve always believed, there was only ever one king of Samoa and that was Tuimanu’a.

            Das all…are you still mixing? If so, spit in the bucket or kumete and have Ken massage your hamstrings!! 😁😁😁

            • Siale is Tiale says:
              YOU ARE – not Ken, I dont want AIDS..hahahahahaha

              Kainga is used as family but in a general sense. Used to acknowledge the people your close to, extended family is equal to people in your community, all family. family from just your home, well yea we didnt have a specific word. We still use kainga but not same as aiga.

              as for the first Tu’i Tonga, I was told the sAmoans that left sAmoa were either exiled out of sAmoa or rebellions that couldnt overthrow the King at that time (idk for which sAmoan island) and sailed to settled South. I tend to think Upolu, hence the chief title Tu’i Kanokupolu (no idea what it means lol).

              The 19th Tu’i Kanokupolu also known as Taufa’ahau Tupou I, changed a lot of the culture. Losing it is one thing, but changing it because your a KING makes it your new and revised culture. Influenced not by the WHITE man but by his conversion to GOD’s culture (in his own interpretation). That included the practice of the Tufunga Ta Tatau, because a man was considered sexually attractive if he was tattooed, or wearing a Vaka or Pe’a in sAmoan.

              As for the language, it isnt lost, its a secondary sAmoan language, not officially written until 1800’s one used by Royal families, or if you were to address the Royals formally. Many words were lost because like you said, the tattooist held a big part in keeping the culture and word that were no longer used eventually lost with the Tunfunga Ta Tataus’. Linguistics propose that Tongans have kept the more of the original proto-Polynesian language than other polynesian islands. Examples lie within common words throughout polynesia. Some may argue that it only seems that way because Tongas influence all over the pacific, but Tongas just a secondary language to its original sAmoan base tongue. but we didnt ad the K you guys took it out, Kainga, Kai, KAVA, Kanahe or ‘anae in samoan, kanae – Maori, kanae- cook islands.

              The 19th King went christian, he easily could have done so without making all of Tonga Christian and even the Culture of Tonga Christian, but he didnt. He made revised the culture making it OUR culture, new but our culture. Like when the first sAmoans got to sAmoa, they eventually one day changed their culture, lost their old culture they use to have. Today its known as the sAmoan culture. I think if the King didnt revise our the culture of the people, we would eventually have lost our land like the rest.

              I dont know how long Tonga occupied sAmoa, but i heard it from a samoans graduate who said thats what they taught in his history class, so idk, 200 or 50 years, but sAmoana said 200 hahahahaha..but their wouldnt be much influence bc everything that is Tongan is already sAmoan. Tau’olunga, Ma’ulu’ulu, ‘Otuhaka, ‘Ula and more are sAmoan influenced dances, i can only think of two Tongan dances Kailoa and the Lakalaka, which is new post european contact.
              So our influence could not have been much because even being Tongan the early Ha’a Tu’i Tongas, often married sAmoan to maintain the pure blood of its race.

              dayum, man made me explain my life, but maybe we should sit around a bowl and have this congo, like were suppose to. hahahaha

              • Red&White says:
                Actually, Kainga is family. There is no specific word for “immediate family” because back in those days (before western influence) we lived in a way where our aunties/uncles and extended relations were considered our mums/dads, brothers and sisters. We would eaten as one on Sundays and many still do, protected one another and worked hard for one another. Our ‘kainga’ would have been considered close family and that is still evident in our culture and language today. Although to each, their own (experience & modern influences).
  19. junior says:
    I grew up in New Zealand and now live in Australia. One thing i have noticed is that most Samoans think that we envy them. Well to be honest we dont! You disrespect every poly culture out there but your own. Most islanders get along with eachother but with samoans they dont like anyother Polynesian but themselves. They dont like Tongans, cook islanders, Nuians, Tokelauans, maori etc. They always state how better they are then the rest of us. Im proud that im not Samoan. Why do they act like that? like they are superior then the rest of us? and now with this article saying that all Polynesians are from samoa oh man their fat heads are gona get bigger.
    • Lagi says:
      Now there brother no need for name calling, please don’t generalise all of us maybe it’s the Samoans you hangout with. But not all of us are bad blokes were just trying to pave a way for our children’s futures, and I’m sure every other Polynesian out there is doing the same. ✊
    • THE EMPEROR says:
      Please don’t share your Inferiority complex. if you can step up and be a Leader then you must follow..or just sit in the back and mumble like a weakling. whispering like a passive aggressive coward to whomever will sit and listen to the evils you secrete.

      Samoans have done more for Polynesian people. without seeking credit. then you’ll ever know.

      If you feeling mad at Samoans, it will be because you don’t have the guts to play with the big boys.
      I know many islanders from many islands. who all get along Tongans, cook islanders, Nuians, Tokelauans, maori and Samoans who do it together.

      you must just be from the weak stock. who only sees weakness.
      yea in ancient times we’d turn you into the Fa’fa >:D.

    • LOL You have issues bro. I live in NZ and us Samoans get along with other Polys fine. You’re making up this story to justify your negative attitude of Samoans. How pathetic.
      • Tauira says:
        Bro I’m Maori and pakeha and I have my own view’s, there is fact in some of what is being said and then the hate crap kicks in… He needs to roll up some peace weed or go church to chill?
    • Ioane Lutali says:
      You can kiss my ass and I wonder what you would say or do if I get in your face and show you what I can do to you as a Samoan.
  20. Local808boy says:
    Interesting article. I was born in American Samoa but raised in Hawaii. In Hawaiian History they dont know where the first Hawaiians came from. It said “The Polynesians” came and settled in the island now known as Hawaii. Although the Hawaiian history wasnt recorded til the first European, Captain Cook set eyes on Hawaii I believe in middle of the 1700s..The King Of Hawaii at that time was King Kamehameha. The proper way of saying his name was, King Tamehameha and growing up in Hawaii. Alot of Samoans and Hawaiians would argued about him being samoan or not.
    • aaron says:
      I was raised in Hawaii but i have to note that my education had a little more substance in terms of history and understanding the origin of the Hawaiians. after all the University of Hawaii provides best Polynesian historical resources of anywhere. We are all Polynesians but we are not all Samoan. not because we did not originate from Samoa because in all likely hood the first Polynesians probably did, but to call a Tahitian Samoan is incorrect. the first Samoans who colonies the Marquesas islands developed a different culture and those who then left the Marquesas island were no longer Samoan. the only future to develop a written language was from Rapanui, but like all other Polynesians the Hawaiians retained an oral history. all of Polynesia at one point were sea faring people but over time that connection to one another was lost and the cultural devision was established.
      • Tony says:
        You don’t make sense, Hawaiians wouldn’t be if not for Samoans. Thank you don’t come again!! Talofa and aloha
        • TokoHighness says:
          U seem like one of those angry Samoans. Angry at the world because Tongans ruled ur island for hundreds of years. Sit down bitch. What’s funny is, Samoans are the only ones that hate that fact, but Fijians, and Futunans accept it and go on, and our relationship with them is good, but Samoans hate Tongans because of that and it causes mad contention. Try change your train of thought. Ofa is Alofa and Aloha braddah.
      • Tauira says:
        What about Hawaiian ancestors are from America? Strong evidence suggests the the Islands off Alaska and Canada have connections directly to Hawaii, the islands themselves are called Haida kawaii in the native American language, the wood carvings the physical appearance is strikingly similar to nearly all Polynesians even as far as New Zealand… How could this go unnoticed.
        The education system has alot to answer for.
  21. Rickah says:
    Im half tongan and Samoan and I am sad to say that I don’t really know much of anything of my Tongan heritage. I dont understand why we have a monarchy, why we celebrate 21st birthdays, or why they dont have many oral histories. Many of my tongan cousins pride themselves on being tongan and talk badly about the Samoans and culture but I can tell from the arguments they try to argue that they dont even know much themselves.
    • TONGA is SOUTH in sAmoan says:
      Tonga still has a monarchy because no other King or nation has been successful in its attempt to overthrow us. 21st bdays are like america 16th birthdays, but for the girl its when she is old enough to marry. Weve lost a lot of oral histories due to our conversion to the christian influence. Talks of past wars or future wars were forbidden. but never the less, we still do have an oral history when Tongan took over parts of Fiji and all of sAmoa for couple hundred years. Its oral history for us Tongan but written in sAmoas history books.
      great story and great warriors from sAmoa fought off the Tongan pressence in sAmoa. MalieToa
      • Tony says:
        I got to tel you again the Tongan islands are useless and have no value. No ones tried to overthrow it because it has no significance. The Samoan, Hawaiian and Maori islands all were Gold to the powerful white mans eyes in those early days so therefore they had the navy and guns to take what they wanted and those 3 polynesian people’s put up big fights and lost a lot of lives trying to defend their islands and way of life, and lost to the white mans canons and bullets. If the Tongo islands had any real value they would have raped the king and queen of Tongo easy. No value if the island is flat, small and no great Harbor like the other 3 islands. Thank you don’t come again!
        • West Easy says:
          If you know how Samoa lost their land u know blood wasn’t shed. the white man offered protection and that’s what the land was traded for after Tui Manu’a. The land wasn’t lost, it was given away. Same with Hawaii, the queen gave it away.
  22. henare paki says:
    Tongans will always try to deny the truth about Polynesians being of Samoan lineage coz of their jealousy and envy of Samoans as I have observed even in school. I know as a maori my ancestors traces back to hawaiki or Hawaii who are traced back to Samoa. I always noticed the difference between samoans and tongans. samoans would excel in what they do and then the tongans would follow. I am uni now and my samoan mates seem to always help my tongan mates with their studies, which makes me laugh coz its more of like the tongan mates just copy from my samoan mates homework. Don’t get me wrong I like my tongan mates but their sly as and sneaky as well. Even in fights they are proud of their blindsiding someone which is ugly to watch.
  23. I Am says:
    Samoans got to Samoa in a EQ77 (our space vessel what you would call a UFO) about 2.3 trillion years ago. Trust me, I know, I was on that flight!! We were on an exploration mission to a planetary system in the Delta Quadrant called ㊙ (sorry no English translation) but our flux capacitor malfunctioned along the way and we crash landed in what we came to know as the South Pacific ocean. In our safety rafts we telepathically paddle to what you now know today as Samoa. Being on this very primitive planet we began life as this earth knows it now. There was a beautiful garden on the island and we named that garden after my mother, Eden. Anyhow, the story has been well documented in what you now call the bible. Though whoever wrote it added some extra things, we have found the book to be mostly correct. The Tongans got to Tonga by teleportation from Samoa. They are my cousins. We can in the same space vessel. So as you can see, Simba, we are all part of the same alien evolution that my great nephew 976k times over, Jesus has said. Just so you are clear who I am, I Am That I Am 🙂
    • The Horizon says:
      You Forgot to add that there’s an Underwater city built under Samoa where the Blue skinned Mer people live. hence our national color is blue. There’s an old legend in Samoa. every once in a while they come to the surface and choose a special person, the one who works the plantation the hardest. aka the chosen one. they take him to the sub-terrain for some Mermaid love. Hence Samoans are half Merman. Our genetic stock was built from the genes of the Turtle, the snake, The Sting ray , the Crab and the Shark.
      the rest of the Pacific were synthesized from jelly fish. which is why they all have smaller Calf muscles then Samoans.
      In the holy-land a mans worth is measured by the size of his calves.
      Ia Soifua.
      • I Am says:
        How dare you disclose information about our holy underwater city and civilization?!? Be on guard Horizon my Mer – people will be sending their most elite squad of hunters, the Myrmidon’s, led by my brave nephew Achilles to bring your slithering tongue to justice!!
    • Space-Poly says:
      @I Am – IM JUST LUV UR POST!!! Luv ur humor!!!! thats what all you polys need to take from this post…. We are one big POLY family… Relax and dont take things so serious… Remember… There is no other culture like ours “POLYNESIANS” …. If 2 different Polys from different Poly island nations (unbeknowst to eachother), were sent to a country that is predominantly of Caucasian descent… and these 2 Polys ran into eachother by chance…. What do you think they would do? … They would connect and establish a Poly bond… regardless of what friken island they are from. Thats one thing we Polys have- that no other culture/people have on us- we are a global family…AND REMEMBER THAT!!!! WE ALL CAME FROM THE SAME SPACESHIP!!!! ALOHA!
  24. Elihu says:
    Anthropologist rejects Tonga ‘cradle of Polynesia’ theory
    Updated 19 December 2011, 11:10 AEDT

    A Tongan social anthropologist says the basis on which researchers have named a small Tongan fishing village as the birthplace of Polynesia, is shaky.

    Canadian archaeologist Professor David Burley and his team identified Nukuleka, east of the capital Nuku’alofa, as the cradle of Polynesia – after finding Lapita pottery, the oldest yet discovered in Polynesia and dated at 2,900 years old.

    But Dr Okusitino Mahina, a Tongan-born Pacific anthropologist based at Auckland University, says the scientists didn’t consider oral and linguistic history, or early maps – which describe Polynesia as, literally, many islands.

    He says Professor Burley’s suggestion that Nukuleka must be the cradle of all Polynesia because of the discovery of the oldest piece of pottery yet found in Tonga, is not sufficient proof.

    “He needs to work in cooperation with other people in other areas, social anthropology, linguistic, oral historians, artists – he cannot go it alone,” Dr Mahina said.

  25. Timothy says:
    Lapita pottery is of Melanesian trait, not in anyway Polynesian.
  26. Famickey says:
    To me, as flattering as this article may sound to myself,(me being a VERY proud Samoan), I have to give it a thumbs WAY down..in this day and age, we NEED to try and bring ALL of our Polynesian Peoples TOGETHER..alls I see from this article, and judging from the first comment from Suliasi, it’s just another way of dividing ALL of Polynesia further apart..so let me start this comment thread off right and say that I AM A VERY PROUD POLYNESIAN..LOVE TO ALL THE POLYS AROUND THE WORLD..UNITED WE STAND, DIVIDED WE FALL
  27. Suliasi says:
    How did “Samoans” get to Samoa? Lapita pottery found by archeologists date Tonga as the cradle of Pilynesia. So do linguist in that the Samoan language is derived from the Tongan language. Great read but all opinion and not founded on current archeological findings.
    • John Masina says:
      LoL suliasi did you forget that the samoan used the the same potteries? How did Tongan get to Tonga? When comparing artifacts from both islands which includes bones of humans buried on both grounds guess who had the oldest artifacts and bones? Samoa… but it does not answer the real question on poly being all Samoa. Timothy is right the potteries that was found were not Lapita lol of course you would say that. I have to agree with famickey on this. Who gives a shit? Together we are one. Proud Uso! F#$* this article…
    • Elihu says:
      Anthropologist rejects Tonga ‘cradle of Polynesia’ theory
      Updated 19 December 2011, 11:10 AEDT

      A Tongan social anthropologist says the basis on which researchers have named a small Tongan fishing village as the birthplace of Polynesia, is shaky.

      Canadian archaeologist Professor David Burley and his team identified Nukuleka, east of the capital Nuku’alofa, as the cradle of Polynesia – after finding Lapita pottery, the oldest yet discovered in Polynesia and dated at 2,900 years old.

      But Dr Okusitino Mahina, a Tongan-born Pacific anthropologist based at Auckland University, says the scientists didn’t consider oral and linguistic history, or early maps – which describe Polynesia as, literally, many islands.

      He says Professor Burley’s suggestion that Nukuleka must be the cradle of all Polynesia because of the discovery of the oldest piece of pottery yet found in Tonga, is not sufficient proof.

      “He needs to work in cooperation with other people in other areas, social anthropology, linguistic, oral historians, artists – he cannot go it alone,” Dr Mahina said.

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